Publication Date


Document Type


Degree Name

M.S. (Master of Science)

Legacy Department

Department of Family, Consumer, and Nutrition Sciences


Menopause--Illinois--De Kalb; Dietary supplements--Illinois--De Kalb; Exercise for women--Illinois--De Kalb; Calcium in human nutrition--Illinois--De Kalb; Vitamin D in human nutrition--Illinois--De Kalb


The objective of this study was to determine if there were differences in dietary calcium and vitamin D intakes, use of supplements, participation in weight-bearing exercise, and attitudes toward menopause among university female faculty and staff at varying stages of menopause. Stage of menopause was defined as menopause status, and women were categorized as premenopausal, perimenopausal, postmenopausal, or “other” if menopause status could not be determined. Participants included 114 women. The average age of the women was 45.7±10.0 years (range=21.5 to 73.5 years). The distribution into menopause groups of women included 60 premenopausal, 15 perimenopausal, 36 postmenopausal, and three whose menopause status was not determined. Subjects were randomly selected by systematic sampling procedures through the university’s 1999-2000 Community Phone Book. Diet and exercise behaviors and demographics were assessed by the “Menopause Status and Lifestyle Behaviors Questionnaire.” A modified version of the Menopause Attitudes Scale was used to determine attitudes toward menopause. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate demographic data. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to assess between-group differences of dietary calcium intake, dietary vitamin D intake, weekly weight-bearing exercise participation, and attitudes toward menopause among the three major menopause groups. Results of differences among menopause groups and dietary calcium intake, dietary vitamin D intake from milk, weight-bearing exercise participation, and attitudes toward menopause were not significant. The average dietary calcium intakes of all groups were below the recommended servings according to the Food Guide Pyramid for dairy products. Vitamin D intakes from milk were also low for all groups according to Adequate Intakes (AI). Participation in weekly weight-bearing exercise was highest in perimenopausal women and lowest in premenopausal women. Attitudes toward menopause were negative only in the perimenopausal group. Calcium and vitamin Dcontaining calcium supplement use was highest in postmenopausal women, while multivitamin/mineral supplement use was highest in premenopausal women. The application of this research study includes the education of women who are at all stages of menopause regarding the importance of dietary calcium and vitamin D and regular weight-bearing exercise as measures protective of bone health during all stages of life.


Includes bibliographical references (pages [37]-42, [75]-83)


vi, 94 pages




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