Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Morris, Sherill V. C.

Degree Name

B.S. (Bachelor of Science)

Legacy Department

School of Allied Health and Communicative Disorders


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if one component of social economic status, participation in the free/reduced lunch program, predicts fall and winter literacy benchmark test scores and to discuss the components of a phonological awareness reading program .Method: Seventy kindergarten and first grade students from Brooks Elementary in DeKalb, Illinois, participated in this study. Assessments were given to test letter naming fluency and nonsense word reading fluency. In addition, each student was categorized according to lunch status. Results: Lunch status alone predicted 1% of the variability in fall letter naming status and less than 1% of the variability in winter letter naming status. However, visual analysis showed that a higher percentage of children receiving free lunch scored in the deficient and marginal range compared to children with paid lunch. Conclusion: A combination of SES, genetics, additional programs, and the presence of a language impairment will likely provide more predictability of literacy skills. The phonological awareness program currently offered at Brooks Elementary includes the major elements indicated as important in other studies and will be assessed for efficacy in the future.


Includes bibliographical references.


17 pages




Northern Illinois University

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