Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Gaillard, Elizabeth R.

Degree Name

B.S. (Bachelor of Science)

Legacy Department

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry


Abstract Retinal ocular diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), clinically significant diabetic macular edema (DME), diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal vein occlusions are currently difficult to treat effectively with topical medications and eye drops. Intravitreal injections of pharmacological products are currently the most effective method of treatment. Frequent injections have been found to have adverse effects including infection, endophthalmitis and retinal detachment. Inconsistent patient compliance decreases the effectiveness of the pharmaceuticals and the fiscal impact also poses a problem with recurring intravitreal injections. Liposomes are nano-sized bi-layered vesicles that will encapsulate various hydrophilic or hydrophobic substances necessary for treatment of ocular diseases. Liposomes can be formulated to slowly release the drug thereby preventing frequent painful injections. Liposomes of various lipid to cholesterol concentrations were formulated using the ethanol-injection method and then extruded with a 100 nm pore sized polycarbonate filter. The liposomes were then characterized via confocal microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy to analyze size, homogeneity, stability, and encapsulation efficiency.


9 pages




Northern Illinois University

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