Document Type



Junior colleges, unlike colleges in the National Collegiate Athletic Association, have been neglected in the Title IX discussion on disparities in female athletics. Newly compiled data in this article reveals that women who participate in athletics in the National Junior College Association and the California Community College Athletic Association receive fewer athletic opportunities, less athletic expenses, and less athletically-related student aid than males do. Despite these glaring disparities, junior colleges have been absent from the Title IX discussion. However, this article sheds light on such disparities in hopes to compel change for female athletics at the junior college level. Further, in an effort to combat these disparities, this article proposes changes to the Title IX regulations and proposes mandating that junior colleges employ athletic Title IX coordinators. By shedding light on the obvious disparities and by proposing significant changes at junior colleges, this article will make significant steps toward allowing females athletes to enjoy the benefits male athletes enjoy in junior colleges.

Publication Date



College of Law

Original Citation

Brittany A. Miller, Comment, Title IX After 45 Years: Overlooked Disparities in the National Junior College Athletic Association and California Community College Athletic Association, 10 N. Ill. U. L. Rev. Online Supp. 29 (2019).

Included in

Law Commons