Microfluidic, One-Batch Synthesis of Pd Nanocrystals on N-Doped Carbon in Surfactant-Free Deep Eutectic Solvents for Formic Acid Electrochemical Oxidation
Author ORCID Identifier
ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
One of the grand challenges that impedes practical applications of nanomaterials is the lack of robust manufacturing methods that are scalable, cheap, and environmentally friendly. Herein, we address this challenge by developing a microfluidic approach that produces surfactant-free Pd nanocrystals (NCs) uniformly loaded on N-doped porous carbon in a one-batch process. The deep eutectic solvent (DES) prepared from choline chloride and ethylene glycol was employed as a novel synthesis solvent, and its extended hydrogen networks and abundant ionic species effectively stabilize Pd facets and confine nanocrystal sizes without using surfactants. The microreactors provide faster heat exchange and more uniform mass transport, which in combination with DES produced Pd NCs with better-defined shape and predominately exposed Pd (100) facet. Furthermore, we describe that the N-doped functional groups in porous carbon direct dense and uniform heterogeneous growth of Pd NCs in a one-batch process, thereby eliminating a separate catalyst deposition step that is often involved in conventional synthesis. The Pd NCs in the one-batch-produced Pd/C catalysts exhibited a size distribution of ∼13 ± 3.5 nm and a high ESCA of 46.0 m2/g and delivered 362 mA/mg for formic acid electrochemical oxidation with improved stability, demonstrating the unique potentials of microfluidic reactors and DES for the controllable and scalable synthesis of electrocatalyst materials for practical applications.
deep eutectic solvent, formic acid oxidation, microfluidics, nanocrystals, palladium
Zhang, Hong; Lu, Ke; Li, Bomin; Liu, Yuzi; Su, Yuanhai; Wang, Rongyue; and Cheng, Yingwen, "Microfluidic, One-Batch Synthesis of Pd Nanocrystals on N-Doped Carbon in Surfactant-Free Deep Eutectic Solvents for Formic Acid Electrochemical Oxidation" (2020). NIU Bibliography. 377.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry