Longitudinal Relationships Between Parent Involvement, Parental Warmth, ADHD Symptoms, and Reading Achievement
Author ORCID Identifier
Journal of Attention Disorders
Objective: This study examined potential bidirectional relationships between parental warmth, parent involvement in education, child symptoms of ADHD, and achievement between ages five and nine. Method: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a nationally representative, longitudinal study, associations between ADHD symptoms, parental warmth, parental involvement, and reading achievement in a cross-lagged panel model were analyzed with a sample of 3,386 children. Results: Parental warmth at the age of 5 years was a negative predictor of ADHD symptoms at the age of 9 years; ADHD symptoms at the age of 5 years negatively predicted parental warmth at the age of 9 years. ADHD symptoms at the age of 5 years negatively predicted later parental involvement, but involvement did not predict later ADHD symptoms. Conclusion: Findings provide support for bidirectional associations between parental warmth and ADHD symptoms across time but unidirectional effects from ADHD to parental involvement. These findings have implications for informing intervention efforts to consider both parenting and child-evocative effects.
achievement, ADHD, parenting
Shelleby, Elizabeth C. and Ogg, Julia, "Longitudinal Relationships Between Parent Involvement, Parental Warmth, ADHD Symptoms, and Reading Achievement" (2020). NIU Bibliography. 363.
Department of Psychology