Numerical Analysis of Liquid Cooling of 3D-ICs Using Embedded Channels
Author ORCID Identifier
IEEE International Conference on Electro Information Technology
Hot-spots are considered among the unavoidable consequences of the high integration density of 3D-ICs. Eliminating hotspots requires employing efficient cooling techniques. Using embedded channels, liquid cooling systems can be designed to deliver the right amount of coolant to each spot of the chip. In this study, numerical analysis is used to investigate the cooling of a 20 W hotspot using embedded channels employing three coolants: water, Freon (R22), and liquid nitrogen (LN). The investigation of thermal management and stress show that, although LN provides the lowest operating temperature (164 K), it causes the highest stress (355 MPa) at 100 mm/s inlet velocity. The study also shows that, coolant delivery using parallel channels results in a wide variation of local temperatures and stress. This stress variation may form 'high-stress spots,' which may cause circuit failure, performance degradation, or yield reduction. Therefore, cooling systems and chip fabrication should be designed to ensure the elimination of high-stress hotspots.
3D-IC, Chip Embedded Cooling, COMSOL, Heat transfer, Thermal Stress analysis
Islam, Sakib and Abdel-Motaleb, Ibrahim, "Numerical Analysis of Liquid Cooling of 3D-ICs Using Embedded Channels" (2020). NIU Bibliography. 251.
Department of Electrical Engineering