Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Quinlan, Mary

Degree Name

M.F.A. (Master of Fine Arts)


School of Art and Design


In 2015 the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) began tracking Confederate symbol usage in the United States, namely focusing on confederate flags and monuments. That same year a white supremacist fatally shot nine Black worshippers at the historic Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, S.C. The shooter in this case had confederate symbols all over their home. This sparked conversation nationally about confederate symbolism and its true purpose. In turn, the conversation led to highly contested debates on confederate monuments and statues. Between 2015 and 2020, 148 confederate statues were removed from the public eye. But the most shocking fact when looking at the confederate monument debate is not only the sheer number of monuments, but their locations. Of the Confederate monuments constructed, 1 in 12 of them reside in Northern states.