Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Sells, James Nathan, 1958-

Degree Name

Ed.D. (Doctor of Education)

Legacy Department

Department of Counseling, Adult and Higher Education


Gang members--Honduras


The present dissertation investigated the relationship between resiliency attitudes and selected risk factors in male Honduran gang members. This was a quantitative study with a cross-sectional, single-test design. The following hypotheses were tested at the .05 confidence level: (1) higher scores of resiliency attitudes will predict later age of entry to the gang, (2) higher scores of resiliency attitudes will predict less use of illegal drugs and alcohol, and (3) higher scores of resiliency attitudes will predict higher level of education. Two instruments were used. The Resiliency Attitudes Scales (RAS) and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR). General demographic information was also obtained. The sample of the study included detained male gang members at the Comayagua Jail Farm in Honduras. A total of 130 packets were distributed, yielding 48 usable questionnaires, which represents a 36% return rate. Data generated from the surveys were analyzed using simple and binary logistic regressions. The Pearson product-correlation coefficient was utilized to analyze the relationship among the variables. The results indicated that there was no statistically significant amount of variance accounted for by age of entry to the gang. The Pearson product correlation revealed that age of entry was significantly related to the relationship subscale (r = .301, n = 48, p < .05, two tailed) and to the creativity and humor subscales (r = .289, n = 48, p < .05, two tailed). Furthermore, there was no statistically significant amount of unique variance accounted for by use of alcohol (X (7) = 8.73, ns at the .05 level) nor for drug use (X (7) = 7.12, ns at the .05 level) among the participants. Finally, the model, level of education and resiliency attitudes, was statistically significant for X (7) = 16.41 at the 0.05 level. The Pearson product-moment correlation confirmed the relationship between these variables. For the creativity and humor scale r = .395, n = 48, p < .01, two tailed, and for the general resiliency subscale r = .333, n = 48, p < .05, two tailed. Implications for professional counselors, recommendations for future research, and limitations of the study have been included in Chapter 5.


Includes bibliographical references (pages [147]-160).


x, 193 pages (some color pages)




Northern Illinois University

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