Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Dunn, J. Hubert

Degree Name

M.S. (Master of Science)

Legacy Department

Department of Physical Education


Jumping; Broad jump


This study was conducted to analyze cinematographically the takeoff phase of the long jump as performed by competitive long jumpers of various performance levels. Variations in approach velocity and the distance jumped were also observed. Six long jumpers, who were considered to represent the upper 20% of their performance level, were chosen from each of three performance levels: college, high school, and junior high school. During film processing the second college jumper's data were lost, thus resulting in one college jumper, which was the better of the two in personal best and in test results. All subjects were filmed performing the long jump with a maximum of five jumps each, allowing for at least one good jump. Film data of the takeoff were obtained by means of a 15 mm high speed motion picture camera. Approach velocities were obtained by marking known distances on the runway and calibrating the frame rate of the video tape recorder. Prior to filming, all subjects were prepared by placing 4 in. black dots in position to represent the major joint centers of the body. Film analysis was accomplished through the use of a Numonics digitizer and an Apple 11+ microcomputer. Segmental representations of the body were generated through film analysis and used to determine displacement, velocity, and acceleration of the jumper's center of gravity. Conclusions drawn from this study indicated that the mechanics used by all subjects were basically similar and tended to support commonly accepted mechanical parameters. Findings showed similarities in approach velocity patterns and the percentage of the approach distance necessary to reach maximal velocity, with only small variations in the takeoff. Large differences were apparent only in the percentage of velocity lost throughout the takeoff. The lower performance levels experienced greater degrees of negative acceleration throughout the takeoff. These results were related to a misapplication of vertical force prior to the subject's center of gravity moving to a position over the takeoff foot.


Bibliography: pages [54]-56.


vii, 88 pages




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