Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Syphers, Michael J.

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Physics


A third-integer resonant slow extraction system is being developed for Fermilab's Delivery Ring to deliver protons to the upcoming Mu2e experiment. The timescale of the extraction (or spill) duration is 43 milliseconds, which is extremely short and unprecedented. Additionally, the experiment's strict and challenging requirements on the quality of the spill at this time scale has led to the development of a new Spill Regulation System (SRS) design. The SRS primarily consists of three components - slow regulation, fast regulation, and harmonic content suppressor. Contributions to the first two components of the SRS, i.e., Slow Regulation and Fast Regulation subsystems, will be presented in which new adaptive learning algorithm schemes for the slow regulation of the spill -- validated using particle tracking simulations -- shall be described. In addition to these novel methods for the enhancement of the spill regulation system, results of employing Machine Learning in enhancing the performance of the resonant extraction are also presented. At the forefront of applying ML techniques to solve non-linear accelerator control problems, this work includes optimizing the PID gains as well as the replacement of the traditional PID controller using Recurrent Neural Networks and Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) ML models to achieve efficiencies greater than a PID controller. Cutting-edge on-going Reinforcement Learning efforts, including an actor-critic family of learning algorithms, to regulate the spill rate will be reviewed, as well as present analytical calculations pertaining the transit time of particles in a third-integer resonant extraction. Detailed numerical investigations and validations of such calculations, the model of which could be exported and reliably used in future analytical modeling of any resonant extraction, are discussed.


251 pages




Northern Illinois University

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