Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Healey, William Albert||Dunn, J. Hubert

Degree Name

M.S. Ed. (Master of Education)

Legacy Department

Department of Physical Education


Gymnastics; Horizontal bar


The problem of this study was to analyze, by the use of cinematography, the mechanical principles involved in performing the forward stalder shoot on the horizontal bar. Motion pictures were taken of three subjects as they performed the forward stalder shoot. The three subjects demonstrated varied levels of skill. Two of the subjects completed the skill, while the third did not. The filming was done indoors against a white background that was marked off in one-foot squares. The background helped to determine distances and angles. A Councilman pace clock divided into seconds was placed in the foreground to help time the performances. A Bolen IH 16 Reflex 16 millimeter sound camera was used to film the performances. Kodak 16 millimeter Tri-X reversal movie film was used. It was exposed at a rate of 64 frames per second. Each subject wore a pair of briefs and had his shoulder, hip, knee and ankle marked with two strips of tape in contrasting colors. These strips of tape served as points of reference when analyzing the performances. Positive films of the best performances of three trials were projected through a microfilm reader and a slide projector onto polar coordinate graph paper. Stick figures were drawn, using the reference points. From these drawings, analyses were made and the following conclusions were drawn. The forward stalder shoot should be initiated with a flexion at the hips before the body reaches a position horizontal to the ground (270°). The legs should be pulled toward the trunk and straddled over the bar to shorten the radial distance. The hips should be flexed a total of 200°, indicating the need for extreme flexibility in the performer. The shoulders should be flexed to between 110° and 120°. This keeps the angular momentum constant. The head should be kept still with the eyes focused on the horizontal bar; this helps to maintain the body position. Recovery of the forward stalder shoot should be started with a hip extension of about 60°. This increases the radial distance and allows the hips to rise and the shoulders to move over the bar. The wrists should be rolled over the top of the bar, pulling the shoulders and hips with them. With the lengthening radial distance and decreasing angular velocity, the torque should be eliminated, allowing the hips to extend to 180° as the body reaches the handstand position. This marks the end of the forward stalder shoot.


Includes bibliographical references.||Includes illustrations.


44 pages




Northern Illinois University

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