Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Wu, Kevin D.

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Psychology


The Penn Inventory of Scrupulosity (PIOS) was developed in a sample of primarily Christian participants. Since scrupulosity is intertwined with religion, it is important to establish that the PIOS and its revised version (PIOS-R) are invariant across the religions with which the measure is primarily utilized: Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. Additionally, there was inconsistency in the literature as to the factor structure of the PIOS/PIOS-R, so three of the models in the literature each were examined and compared for the PIOS and the PIOS-R. 718 participants were recruited through MTurk and reported affiliation with either Christianity (n = 274), Islam (n = 243), or Judaism (n = 201). CFA results revealed that only a modified version of the two-factor model had satisfactory fit for the full-length PIOS. For the PIOS-R, a two-factor model had best fit. Both versions displayed full invariance as well as equivalent factor variances and covariances across all groups. While inconsistent with my hypothesis, this provides support for the continued use of the PIOS/PIOS-R in each of these populations. Latent mean analyses revealed that the Jewish group was lower on scrupulosity than the other two groups. The PIOS/PIOS-R showed excellent internal reliability and generally good convergent and discriminant validity. The PIOS-R performed the same or better than the PIOS in this study, and the author concluded that there is no empirical basis for the use of the full PIOS moving forward. Future research should examine invariance of the PIOS-R in less broadly-defined religious groups (e.g., across denominations).


167 pages




Northern Illinois University

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