Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Ogg, Julia

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Psychology


This study analyzed the effect of elementary special education receipt within the U.S. Given the nonrandomized nature of special education, the statistical method for measuring the effect of special education must adequately control for contextual factors that are associated with special education receipt. Propensity score weighting is a technique that can control for covariates to test outcomes of those receiving special education compared to those who have not received special education. Using propensity score weighting, this study analyzed the impact of special education status on academic skills (i.e., math, reading, and science), social-emotional functioning (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors), and learning-related behaviors using a nationally representative sample of elementary students in kindergarten through fifth grade (i.e., the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010– 11; ECLS-K:2011). The findings indicate that special education was associated with lower academic skills, social-emotional functioning, and learning-related behaviors than would be expected had students not received special education.


77 pages




Northern Illinois University

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In Copyright

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Media Type


Available for download on Wednesday, April 09, 2025