Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Santuzzi, Alecia M.

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Psychology


Despite the growth of workplace inclusion research and practice over the last 20 years, conceptual clarity and theoretically grounded research have lagged. The current study used baseline data and twice-daily measurements over a two-week period to test and extend a prominent model of workplace inclusion (i.e., Shore et al. 2011). This involved testing bivariate and indirect relationships between inclusion practices (work involvement, inclusive leadership, and diversity climate), felt inclusion, and well-being and work outcomes (affect, organizational commitment, work engagement, and citizenship behavior), as proposed in the original model. I extended the model to test individual differences in the need for belonging and need for authenticity as moderators of the relationship between inclusion practices and felt inclusion. Additionally, I tested felt competence as an alternative mechanism linking inclusion practices and felt inclusion.

Results provided strong support for the original Shore et al. model whereby inclusion practices were indirectly related to outcomes through felt inclusion. Results of the moderation hypothesis were largely unsupported, and indirect effects of inclusion practices on outcomes through felt competence were inconsistent and primarily isolated to the baseline data. Exploratory analyses revealed subgroup (age, gender, disability) differences in mean levels of felt inclusion. Further, there were cross-level interaction effects of subgroups on associations between inclusion practices and felt inclusion; although, the nature of relationships differed by subgroup. The current findings provide evidence in support of workplace inclusion theory and contribute clarity around inclusion construct definitions. Additional theoretical and practical implications are discussed.


233 pages




Northern Illinois University

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