Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Demaray, Michelle

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Psychology


In an increasingly diverse nation, calls for education that is culturally relevant has become salient, and student perceptions of school-based racial-ethnic socialization (SRE socialization) provides insight toward how cultural messages are being interpreted by students. Schools and educators that adopt culturally relevant pedagogy have been shown to benefit students, by increasing positive outcomes, such as grades, school attendance, and school belonging, while decreasing negative outcomes, such as school dropout. Culturally relevant practices have been increasingly included in teacher competencies and codified into law, though less is understood about how outcomes may be differential across racial groups and genders. The current study sought to investigate how student perceptions of racial-ethnic socialization within their schools is related to social, behavioral, and academic outcomes, and how these associations may differ across race and gender. These outcomes were measured as school engagement, school belonging, office discipline referrals, attendance, and grade point average across subject areas and structural equation modeling captured these observed variables as latent items. Analyses found that for the total sample, students’ perceptions of SRE socialization was positively associated with social outcomes and negatively associated with academic outcomes, while no association was shown with behavior outcomes. Thus, when students viewed their school more positively in light of racial-ethnic socialization, the better social outcomes they also held while concurrently having lower academic outcomes. Further, these findings did not differ between racial-ethnic groups or genders. The current study informs school and curriculum standards and adds to the literature in understanding that student perceptions of school-based racial-ethnic socialization do not differ in the impact on outcomes based on race or gender.


125 pages




Northern Illinois University

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