Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Demaray, Michelle K.

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Psychology


Victimization is an experience that affects a substantial portion of the adolescent population, and it is well established that it is associated with a host of negative outcomes, including depression. While the relations between victimization and depression have been researched extensively, there are a number of factors that may contribute to this association. Furthermore, both internal and external factors can play a role. Internally, the unique attribute of being socially anxious as well as the perceptions one carries regarding their appearance (i.e., body esteem) are implicated as potential mediators between victimization and depression. Externally, the social support an adolescent perceives from their classmates can bolster them from developing negative outcomes related to victimization. The current study aimed to examine an integrated model describing how the constructs of victimization, social anxiety, and body esteem are related to depression when considering classmate social support in adolescent boys and girls. Using a middle school sample of approximately 675 students. Participants completed various self-report measures, including the Bullying Participant Behaviors Questionnaire (BPBQ; Summers & Demaray, 2008), Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA; Mendelson, Mendelson, & White, 2001), Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED; Birmaher et al., 1997), Child and Adolescent Scale for Social Support (CASSS; Malecki & Demaray, 2002), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Revised (CES-DR; Eaton, Smith, Ybarra, Muntaner, & Tien, 2004). Results indicated that body esteem significantly mediated the association of victimization and depression, with social anxiety not being associated with victimization, but significantly associated with body esteem. Classmate social support was not a significant moderator in either models. Implications are discussed regarding the findings and directions for future research.


98 pages




Northern Illinois University

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