Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Santuzzi, Alecia M.

Second Advisor

Barber, Larissa K.

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Psychology


Information and communication technology (ICT) use has been an essential part of knowledge work, which creates ICT demands that lead to negative psychological experiences. Drawing from the job demands-resources model, this dissertation examined how ICT demands (i.e., expectation of being available and responsive via ICTs during nonwork time and perceived ICT workloads) could be associated with increased work exhaustion and decreased work engagement. The study also examined the mediating role of negative work rumination (i.e., heightened cognition about work demands) in the association between demands and well-being outcomes. Driven by the resource allocation framework, an email management intervention was proposed to buffer the negative impact of ICT demands on negative work rumination and well-being outcomes. An experimental daily dairy study was conducted during which full-time employees (N = 118) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (no intervention, email batching, email and exposure batching) and completed two daily surveys over the course of 10 consecutive working days. Results from multilevel path analysis showed that both forms of ICT demands were associated with a higher level of work exhaustion, but no evidence to support a direct association with work engagement. There was an indirect effect of ICT workload on both exhaustion and engagement via negative work rumination. However, no significant effects of the email management intervention were found. The person-level component of ICT control moderated the effect of availability and response expectation on negative work rumination, such that there was a significant positive relationship between availability and response expectation and negative work rumination when ICT control was low, whereas the relationship became non-significant when ICT control was high. This dissertation contributed to ICT research by understanding the negative impact of ICT demands on well-being via increased negative work rumination. Though no remedial effect of an email management intervention was found, understanding the importance of having control over technology use inspired practical implications for organizations to improve employee well-being.


104 pages




Northern Illinois University

Rights Statement

In Copyright

Rights Statement 2

NIU theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from Huskie Commons for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without the written permission of the authors.

Media Type


Included in

Psychology Commons