Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Wiener, Morris||Hammerman, Donald R.||Goering, Oswald H., 1923-||Donaldson, George W. (George Warren), 1915-

Degree Name

M.S. Ed. (Master of Education)

Legacy Department

Department of Education


School camps; Outdoor education


Statement of the Problem: The purpose of this study was to trace the development of Clear Lake Camp from establishment of the W, K. Kellogg Foundation in 1930 through 1960. The primary objective was to record chronologically events occurring in the establishment and evolvement of the Clear Lake program of school camping. Secondary objectives were (1) to present camping objectives and program, and indicate modifications in each during the thirty year span; (2) to reveal impact of Clear Lake Camp on the outdoor education movement through its former directors and staff, and through conferences held at the camp; and (3) through interpretation of historical data collected, to consider implications for emerging and future outdoor education programs. Method of Research The historical method of research was employed in this study. Data was collected through (l) investigation of literature including those records and documents contained in the library of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, records of the Battle Creek Public Schools, pamphlets, periodicals, and books; (2) personal and taped interviews; and (3) correspondence. Procedures for treating data were documentation, analysis, and synthesis. Summary: The historical development of Clear Lake Camp was reported chronologically. In the 1930's the W. K. Kellogg Foundation possessed three camps, one of which was located at Clear Lake near Dowling, Michigan. These facilities were first used for experimentation in health and welfare camping. Based on success with the early programs, the goal became that of providing camping experiences for all children. It was felt that this could best be accomplished through the public schools, and Clear Lake Camp was selected for a school camping experiment in 1940-1941. Following World War II, in 1944, a school camping program was developed and Clear Lake eventually became the Battle Creek Public School Camp. Camping objectives and program, and modifications in each, were approached topically. Programs over the thirty years were examined, and health, socialization, and education were found to be the three major objectives. The thirty year span was divided into three camping periods: Period of Health Camping, 1930-193^1 Period of Welfare Camping, 1935-1940; and Period of School Camping, 1940-1960. Each of the major objectives was explored in turn and traced through the three periods of camping. The study revealed that the three objectives were present in varying degrees during each period of camping. The principal program objective grew from primarily one of health, to include socialization, and then the broad education goals which encompassed health, socialization, and academic enrichment. Clear Lake Camp’s impact on the outdoor education movement was investigated. It was revealed that Clear Lake made an impact through its former personnel by (1) directing and furthering the careers of these leaders in outdoor education, and (2) providing the men with philosophical foundation, objectives, procedures, and activities which were introduced into later programs. Conferences held at Clear Lake Camp made an impact by bringing together interested educators to consider questions concerning outdoor education, and by providing a camping program and facility to be observed. Implications: Based on the historical data documented, the following implications for present and future outdoor education programs were stated: 1. Investigating the historical development of school camps such as Clear Lake is valuable in establishing new outdoor education programs. Emerging and future programs need not experience the same trial and error processes of evolvement which were necessary in the pioneer camps. The study of a camp's history reveals those segments of program which could not be adapted or were unsuccessful. 2. The goal of public school education for which the camping situation may best provide opportunity for growth is social development. The living -situation in a school camp may stimulate social growth by providing opportunities making it necessary for a child to participate in sharing and planning with others, and assuming responsibilities, 3. Investigation may reveal which activities common to school camping provide the most significant learning experiences and are practical for the length of the camping, session. Some activities, such as operating a bank or store., have been continued as tradition but may not be practical for a one week experience. 4. The people involved with operating a school camp contribute greatly to its success or failure. Selection of staff may be one of the most important factors in initiating and developing a school camping program.


Includes bibliographical references.


x, 100 pages




Northern Illinois University

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