Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Tonks, Stephen

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology and Foundations (LEPF)


Blended learning has been implemented in different designs and significantly impacted the learning process. It has been reported that students learned more when online classes were added to traditional courses, and it improved student interaction and satisfaction. In Saudi Arabia, more research is needed to understand the challenges and implementation of blended learning, because it is becoming more popular. This study aimed to use self-determination theory to examine psychological needs satisfaction in blended-learning courses at Saudi Electronic University. The study used the attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction (ARCS) instructional design approach to investigate the level of student motivation in blended learning, how blended learning motivation support (BLMS) can predict student engagement, and how the need satisfaction mediates the relationship between BLMS and student engagement. It also assessed whether demographic variables such as gender, age, and time in the program influence students’ self-reported psychological needs satisfaction, BLMS, and engagement. Quantitative survey data were used to answer the research questions. The result of this study indicts that the students have a high level of motivation for the ARCS approach, psychological needs satisfaction, and students’ engagement, and there was not a statistically significant difference between female and male. However, there were statistically significant differences in engagement and student’ motivation support in blended learning by age and time in the program (p=0.05) in psychological needs satisfaction, skills, and participation. The results indicate that psychological needs satisfaction has a mediating role in the indirect effect of motivation on the perceptions of engagement and blended learning motivation. Psychological needs satisfaction can predict student engagement in blended learning (F=189.67).


182 pages




Northern Illinois University

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