Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Vahabzadeh, Sahar

Degree Name

M.S. (Master of Science)

Legacy Department

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Titanium (Ti) and its alloys are widely used in dental and orthopedic applications due to their advantages such as biocompatibility, excellent corrosion resistance and mechanical properties like low Young’s modulus, low density and high strength as compared to other metallic implants. However, lack of interaction with host tissue (e.g. bioinertness), higher modulus of elasticity as compared to that of bone and resultant stress shielding cause fibrous tissue formation around the implant where the interaction with tissue is minimized. These will eventually cause the implant loosening and revision surgery is needed. Surface modification of Ti by increasing surface roughness and/or incorporation of trace elements where cellular interaction is improved, is a promising technique to enhance the bioactivity.

Surface modification can be achieved through alkali treatment, acidic treatment, sol-gel, and electrochemical anodization. Among these techniques, anodization has received significant attention as it allows formation of uniform titanium nanotubes throughout the material. Although this method is simple, low cost and controllable, modification of complicated geometries by this method is a concern. On the other hand, alkali treatment method is available to increase the surface roughness of metals with various geometries by formation of porous network structure. To further increase the bioactivity of biomaterial and enhance the osteointegration, incorporation of trace elements such as strontium (Sr), magnesium (Mg), silver (Ag) and iron (Fe) is beneficial

The objective of this research is to optimize the anodization and alkali treatment techniques, along with Fe deposition using physical vapor deposition (PVD) method. Different anodization conditions, alkali concentrations and Fe coating thicknesses were selected and their effects on surface morphology was studied. Finally, the effects of surface modification alone or in combination with Fe deposition on bone cell interaction will be investigated.


80 pages




Northern Illinois University

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