Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Hu, Xiaodan

Degree Name

Ed.D. (Doctor of Education)

Legacy Department

Department of Counseling and Higher Education (CAHE)


This quantitative study investigated community college student reenrollment choices, course-taking patterns, and course outcomes after a D/F/W in an online class. The sample included freshmen students with fewer than 30 credit hours, enrolled in a fully online or fully face-to-face (F2F) section of a gateway general education course. Individual-level institutional data were collected for five semesters. Reenrollment was defined as enrolling in the same course with two semesters of the D/F/W grade, and a successful 2nd Attempt was defined as received a final grade of “C or Better.” Preliminary descriptive statistics and course modality pattern analyses were conducted to profile the D/F/W and D/F/W Reenrolled students. Binomial logistic regression analyses were performed to determine student characteristics and course modality predictors of reenrollment, 2nd Attempt modality, and 2nd Attempt course outcomes. The results of the study indicated that traditional, privileged groups of students were more likely to enroll in a F2F modality and persist with reenrollment after a D/F/W outcome, while non-traditional and under-represented students were more likely to choose an online modality and more likely to have a second D/F/W outcome in the 2nd Attempt. Course modality was observed to be a key factor in 2nd Attempt course outcomes, with a F2F modality predictive of a successful “C or Better” outcome. The study confirmed that student characteristics and internal factors identified in Rovai’s composite persistence model impacted persistence and course-taking patterns after a D/F/W, and confirmed that the challenges of an online modality in successful course outcomes persist in a 2nd Attempt.


112 pages




Northern Illinois University

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