Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Fisher, Teresa A.

Second Advisor

Fickling, Melissa J.

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Counseling and Higher Education (CAHE)


Relational cultural theory (RCT) offered a lens for understanding clinical supervisors’ perceptions of working with international counselors in training (ICTs). All 10 participants were professional counselor educators in the role of clinical supervisors and trained in the United States who worked with ICTs by regularly providing clinical supervision for at least one semester within the last three years. They all participated in a virtual interview using an encrypted HIPAA-protected audio-conferencing platform. The findings suggest the clinical supervisors perceived their overall experiences working with ICTs led to growth-fostering relationships and cultural awareness that enriched their lives. The growth resulted from cross-cultural adjustments and learning how to overcome challenges due to their biases and power and privilege compared to their ICTs. Exposure to other cultures, racial identity development, and personal clinical work were also significant components for reducing the disconnection during cross-cultural interactions. In addition, there is a need for a theoretical approach that meets the requirements of the ICTs and facilitates preparing ICTs to work in their home countries.


196 pages




Northern Illinois University

Rights Statement

In Copyright

Rights Statement 2

NIU theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from Huskie Commons for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without the written permission of the authors.

Media Type