Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Hsu, Pi-Sui

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Educational Technology, Research and Assessment (ETRA)


This qualitative study utilizes the lens of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework to provide a holistic view of how language teachers demonstrate their TPACK in teaching listening and speaking in virtual worlds. Seven language teachers who taught in informal virtual language class settings participated in this study. The teachers’ TPACK skills were examined through archived online chat transcripts for each observed class, one-on-one interviews with each language instructor, TPACK and demographic surveys, observation notes, and class documents from the instructors. The researcher took several steps to code the TPACK survey data to identify patterns by comparing the mean scores from each participant and then comparing across all participants. For other data, the researcher used in vivo coding process to highlight specific words or phrases from the participants. The teachers demonstrated their Content Knowledge (CK) by spending time selecting articles or podcasts, their Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) by using a variety of teaching tools such as notecards and microphone, their Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) by using a wide range of teaching activities during the class to meet different learning styles, their Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) by using learning materials based on their teaching experiences, their Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) by using authentic listening audio (podcasts) taken from the internet and supplementing them with the subtitles, and their Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) by combining technology and teaching approaches to teach the target language.


163 pages




Northern Illinois University

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