Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Schmidt, Wesley I.||Schmuller, Allen M. (Allen Mark)

Degree Name

M.S. (Master of Science)

Legacy Department

Department of Guidance and Counseling


Group psychotherapy


Problem: The purpose of this study was to utilize two counseling approaches, directive and non-directive, and observe the changes on social attitudes and grades in snail groups. Procedure: Four groups, of five boys each, were selected from two settings. One setting, a hone for teenage boys, the other a large public high school. Two of the groups were directively counseled, the other two were non-directively counseled. Grade point averages were computed and the Minnesota Counseling Inventory was administered prior to counseling. After ten, fifty minute sessions the test was again administered and the grade point computed. Findings and Conclusions: Seventy-five percent of the total sample improved in social attitudes, as measured by the M.C.I. The average gain for the improved subjects was 4.0 percentile points. Academically, fifty percent of the total sampled lowered their average by .5 of a grade point. Thirty-seven percent improved by a .4 of a grade point and twelve percent made no change. Due to sampling procedures difference tests could not be employed to determine significant results in comparing directive end non-directive counseling approaches. Observable date iron this snail, non-normalized, non-random sample follow. Sixty-six percent of the non-directive subjects improved in social attitudes by a 4.8, percentile average. Academically fifty-six percent of this group improved by .3 of a grade point. The directive group saw eighty-six percent improve in social attitudes by an average gain of 3.2 percentile points. One subject, fourteen percent of the sample, improved academically by .5 of a grade point.


Includes bibliographical references.


vii, 46 pages




Northern Illinois University

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