Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Kiracofe, Christine R., 1975-

Degree Name

Ed.D. (Doctor of Education)

Legacy Department

Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology and Foundations


Educational leadership


This study attempts to examine the role of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 in interscholastic athletics to determine if a pattern exists in the application of the law. The U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights is responsible for enforcing the goal of Title IX, which is to prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender in educational programs receiving federal assistance. Examining federal legislation, litigation, and guidance from the Office for Civil Rights provides a historical backdrop in which to examine the potential future guidance of Title IX on interscholastic athletics. Title IX was originally passed to rectify inequities in colleges and university programs, although it mentioned elementary and secondary schools. The earliest application of the law was on academic programs and departments. Ultimately, through guidance from the Office for Civil Rights and court cases the law was applied more broadly to include athletics and interscholastic institutions. The purpose of this study is to examine the patterns of application of the law to interscholastic athletics. Areas of examination include the application of Title IX's three-part test, elements in Title IX litigation, Title IX court case jurisdiction, frequency of interscholastic Title IX decisions, Title IX court cases by sport, Title IX court cases by gender, and the impact of booster club funding. The analysis of these areas provides school district administrators with instructive guidance for avoiding litigation and ultimately providing equitable athletic opportunities for both boys and girls.


Advisors: Christine R. Kiracofe.||Committee members: Kelly Summers; Teresa Wasonga.||Includes bibliographical references.


191 pages




Northern Illinois University

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