Mark Misic

Publication Date


Document Type


Degree Name

M.S. Ed. (Master of Education)

Legacy Department

Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education


Creatine; Athletes--Drug use--United States; Athletic ability--Testing


Despite numerous studies, the effects of creatine supplementation on anaerobic performance have not been established. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of creatine supplementation on anaerobic performance in humans. Studies were retrieved via (1) computer searches (ERIC, Current Contents, Dissertation Abstracts International, Medline, Sport Discus, and University of Oregon Microfilms), (2) cross-referencing from review and original articles, and (3) consulting with an expert in the field of nutrition and performance. In order to be included in the meta-analysis, studies had to meet the following inclusion criteria: (1) randomized controlled trials with creatine-only supplementation group and a placebo group, (2) anaerobic performance assessed, (3) English-language studies published between 1990 and 1999. The standardized difference approach was used to calculate all effect sizes (ES). Twenty-nine studies representing a total of 172 ES and 468 subjects (271 creatine, 270 placebo) met the inclusion criteria. Across all designs and categories, creatine supplementation had no statistically significant effect on anaerobic performance (ES = 0.0645, 95% confidence interval = -0.0295 to 0.1586). In addition, no statistically significant between- or within-group differences were found when data were partitioned by type of anaerobic performance variable assessed (strength/work, speed, power, and resistance to fatigue, p > .05). In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis suggest that creatine supplementation does not improve anaerobic performance.


Includes bibliographical references (pages [42]-47, [71]-73)


viii, 73 pages




Northern Illinois University

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