Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Wilkins, Elizabeth A.

Degree Name

Ed.D. (Doctor of Education)

Legacy Department

Department of Teaching and Learning


Golfers--Religious life


Numerous studies have been conducted on golf but none have focused on spirituality and how it affects golf performance. Various qualitative studies had been performed so a quantitative study was needed. The design of the experiment was a multivariable 2³ factorial design which had only been used in the business world. Sixty-four participants began this study as per the experimental design. Thirty-eight recreational golfers, twenty-three women and fifteen men, completed the study. Three factors - spiritual meditation, imagery, and a spiritual moment - and their interactions were studied to see if one or a combination would have an effect on golf performance. Golf performance was measured by comparing the average of 5 golf scores before the treatment(s) to 5 golf scores after the treatment(s). ANOVA General Linear Model was used for data analysis. None of the three factors by themselves or in combination with other factors were found to be statistically significant. However, the raw data along with the statistical analysis did provide some clues regarding the interactions of factors as well as the potential of using this experimental design in education.


Includes bibliographical references (pages 143-152)


viii, 152 pages




Northern Illinois University

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