Alt Title

Self-regulatory approach to three hundred sixty-degree feedback and motivation for leader development

Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Parker, Chris P.

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Psychology


360-degree feedback (Rating of employees)--Middle West--Psychological aspects; Employees--Rating of--Middle West--Psychological aspects


Over the past decade 360-degree feedback has evolved into the performance appraisal system of choice for many Fortune 500 companies. This performance review process has been demonstrated to translate into performance improvements at both the individual and organizational levels. Despite these findings, researchers do not fully understand the motivational consequences of raters' feedback on ratees. Further, given that ratings from various sources rarely agree, a model for understanding the motivational consequences of rating discrepancies has yet to be articulated. Overall, such issues are important to understanding the mechanism by which 360- degree feedback produces improved performance. Research has yet to investigate how ratees' feedback from various sources motivates changes in their behavior and developmental goal setting. An individual's motivation to work towards specific developmental goals is likely to systematically correspond to specific aspects of the feedback he/she receives. In fact, little is known about how individuals use 360-degree feedback to set goals and change their behavior. It is clear that 360-degree feedback provides a wealth of information from varying perspectives and has the potential to enhance an individual's knowledge of his/her strengths and development needs. What remains ambiguous, however, are explanations as to how individuals sort through feedback to choose areas of developmental focus and why individuals decide to pursue a specific development course after receiving feedback. This research study proposes a comprehensive model for understanding how 360-degree feedback motivates ratees to pursue development activities that, in turn, lead to performance improvements. By exploring the perspectives that are offered by various feedback sources, this research study sheds light on the processes used to prioritize and choose effective development paths. After proposing this model and articulating the related theoretical propositions, this research study tested specific aspects of the model and propositional statements. It is the author's contention that the multi-source structure of 360-degree feedback performance appraisal provides uniquely motivating feedback that increases the likelihood of performance improvements as measured through developmental goal setting. Findings will help to explain current research that ultimately links feedback with performance outcomes through an examination of developmental motivation.


Includes bibliographical references (pages 144]-150).


xiv, 182 pages




Northern Illinois University

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