Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Novak, Ralph S.||Sims, Clarence A.

Degree Name

M.S. (Master of Science)

Legacy Department

College of Business


Industrial relations; Psychology; Industrial; Personnel management


Personnel problems are human problems. A personnel philosophy represents the fundamental beliefs, ideas, principles and views held by management with respect to organizing and treating individuals at work. The writers in personnel held two different philosophies. The earlier writers stressed on efficiency and high productivity with low labor cost. To attain this end, they treated workers as an economic man motivated by financial incentive. This philosophy faced severe opposition and with the change of time, it changed and the subsequent writers emphasized on human dignity. They held that workers were not self motivated individuals, but they were motivated by the society in which they made up their environment. The two schools of thought represented by some of the famous writers of the respective field. A comparison of their philosophy is as follows: Production oriented philosophy 1. The production oriented philosophy was originated by Fredrick W. Taylor. Henry L. Gantt, Frank B. Gilbreth and Harrington Emerson were its great proponents. 2. The writers of this philosophy stressed on high efficiency, low labor cost and financial incentive for motivation. 3. They treated the workers as an individual in the organization. 4. Emphasis was given for proper selection and training of the employees for high efficiency. 5. Time and motion studies were introduced to determine the fair day's work. 6. Work charts were originated to measure the efficiency and productivity of the workers. 7. Financial incentives and bonus plans were introduced to pay as a compensation for high efficiency. Human oriented philosophy 1. The concept of human relations and importance of human emerged from the Elton Mayo philosophy. Substantial contribution was made by Maslow, Likert and McGregor in the development of this philosophy. 2. The writers of this philosophy emphasized that workers are not isolated individuals. They are group members who seek to maximize satisfaction derived from the social prestige. 3. They stressed on group influence and organization as a social system. 4. Training was implied. 5. Study of human behavior at work was made by these writers. 6. Emphasis was given on communications and motivation of workers. 7. The writers contended that the management should fulfill the physiological needs as well as ego, belongingness and self-actualization needs. 8. The writers emphasize on permissive and democratic supervision. 9. They argued for participation and integration of the workers with the management. 10. Management's responsibility to arrange suitable conditions to fulfill their desire and aspirations. The impact of the two philosophies on the workers was different to each. The production oriented philosophy resulted in severe opposition by labor and there were many labor strikes. The humanitarian philosophy increased the human dignity and created cordial relations between workers and management without affecting the productivity of the workers.


Includes bibliographical references.


vi, 91 pages




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