Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Summers, Kelly H.

Degree Name

Ed.D. (Doctor of Education)

Legacy Department

Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology and Foundations


School management and organization


Since the mid-1990s, the incidence of rampage school shootings reached unprecedented levels and resulted in hundreds of deaths. Rampage shootings are both essentially random and defined by acts involving an attack on multiple parties. The purpose of the current study was to apply prior research to analyze previous multiple victim K-12 public school shooting incidents, specifically rampage school shootings occurring over the past two decades in the United States. This study is intended to help identify best practices for developing and conducting threat assessments in K-12 public schools by assessing the validity of Newman's (2004) five-prong model. Newman et al. (2004, p. 229) identified five "necessary but not sufficient" conditions needed in order for rampage school shootings to occur. This study utilized a historical case study methodology. In total, twelve rampage shooting incidents from 1996-2013 matched the criteria identified in Chapter 3. The overall results, represented in Table 4.4, provide support for the efficacy of Newman et al.'s (2004) framework. Behavioral threat assessment teams are likely the best method for prevention. While no process will completely eliminate risk, an assessment team utilizing Newman et al.'s (2004) framework as described in this study may be the best investment of time and resources a school district has to protect the safety of its students.


Advisors: Kelly H. Summers.||Committee members: Jon H. Crawford; Brad Hawk; Carolyn Pluim.||Includes bibliographical references.


xv, 216 pages




Northern Illinois University

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