Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Lopez, Rosita||Tonks, Stephen M.

Degree Name

Ed.D. (Doctor of Education)

Legacy Department

Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology and Foundations


School management and organization; Education; Mathematics--Study and teaching


This quasi-experimental study examines the academic effects that an interdisciplinary program, Hopscotch Math, has on the development of multiplication facts knowledge of 3rd-grade English-speaking and Spanish-speaking bilingual students. This study also examines teacher perception with regard to Hopscotch Math's effects on students' academic progress and on students' behavioral changes with regard to multiplication facts development. The researcher used three research groups, each comprising approximately 23 subjects. One group received the entire Hopscotch Math program; a second group received the Hopscotch Math program less the movement-based portion of the program, and the third group served as the control group and received no intervention. Students in all research groups took three 50-question multiplication facts tests at three different points in the study: one pre-intervention, one mid-intervention, and one post-intervention. The interventions lasted approximately 8 weeks. The researcher also conducted two round-table question-and-answer sessions with the teachers whose students were the research subjects in this study: one mid-intervention and one post-intervention. The researcher asked questions with regard to teacher perceptions toward Hopscotch Math's academic effectiveness and its effect on student behaviors. From a quantitative perspective, the researcher was ultimately interested in Hopscotch Math's overall academic effectiveness. Pairwise comparisons resulted in one comparison that showed significance (p= 0.0267). This comparison was between the full Hopscotch Math group and the control group. This same comparison had the highest effects size (r=0.2801) of all the pairwise comparisons, but is still categorized as a small effect size. From a qualitative perspective, the responses to the questions asked during the two round-table question-and-answer sessions were generally positive. Results indicate that Hopscotch Math, when used in its entirety, can be an effective tool for teaching basic multiplication facts to elementary-aged students.


Advisors: Rosita Lopez; Stephen Tonks.||Committee members: Ximena Burgin.||Includes bibliographical references.||Includes illustrations.


x, 173 pages




Northern Illinois University

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