Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Grier, J. Brown

Degree Name

M.A. (Master of Arts)

Legacy Department

Department of Psychology


Analogy; Reasoning


Two experiments were conducted in which geometric analogies were presented in two-alternative, forced choice (2AFC) and Yes-No response formats. The major independent variable was the set relation of the terms in the analogy. The role of feedback was also examined. It was predicted that the order of increasing difficulty of the items should be equality, inclusion, intersection, exclusion, with difficulty operationally defined as increased error rate and/or increased response time. The data were analyzed both descriptively and inferentially. Thurstone scales were constructed from the response choices in the 2AFC format, and a signal detection model was applied to the response choices in the Yes-No format. Then, predicted difficulty rankings of the items were determined from the Thurstone scales and signal detection d' estimates, and these predictions were tested on the response time data, indicating statistically significant concordance. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated that set relation was a highly significant factor (p<.0001), while the effect of feedback was equivocal (three way interaction of feedback with set relation and response format p<.04). It was not clear whether the obtained difficulty ordering was as predicted (equality, inclusion, intersection, exclusion), or whether it was actually equality, inclusion, exclusion, intersection.


Includes bibliographical references.||Includes illustrations.


62 pages




Northern Illinois University

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