Tracy Peed

Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Tollerud, Toni R.||Rheineck, Jane E.

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Counseling, Adult and Higher Education


Counseling Psychology


Due to the challenging nature of the school counseling profession, it is vitally important for school counselors to have clinical supervision, from a school counselor who is trained in clinical supervision throughout their internship and as a practicing professional. The purpose of this quantitative study (N = 220) was to explore how clinical supervision training and professional years of experience in the field are related to site supervisor self-efficacy and professional identity. The aim was to better understand how all these factors, seemingly important in some capacity to engagement in clinical supervision training and serving as a site supervisor conducting clinical supervision, intersect. Furthermore, the research has uncovered levels of training where supervisor self-efficacy and professional identity are at their peak. Finally, this study sought examined the optimal combination of factors to produce adequately trained, professionally confident, and engaged school counselor clinical supervisors. Data was gathered from 220 respondents who met the criteria for study participation, a school counselor who has supervised at least one internship student. Detailed demographic information of the sample, as well as the results of two full inventories a) the Site Supervisor Self-Efficacy Survey (S4) (Dekruyf, 2007) and b) the Professional Identity Scale in Counseling (PISC) (Woo, 2013), serve to answer the research questions posed for this study. Lastly, basic psychometric analysis for score reliability (i.e., internal consistency) via Cronbach's Alpha for the S4 and PISC are provided. Three key research questions were addressed via MANOVA analysis (a) Does a linear relationship exist between professional identity and supervisor self-efficacy (b) When looking at school counselor site supervisors scores on the PISC (professional identity) and the S4 (self-efficacy) what, if any, significant mean differences exist across training hour levels and professional experience levels (c) If mean differences do exist, at what levels will there be an interaction effect, bringing to light the optimal combination or combinations of supervision training and professional years of experience. It was found that a linear relationship does exist between the dependent variable of self-efficacy and professional identity. In addition, respondents with higher levels of supervision training (16-50 Hours or 51+ Hours) and/or more professional years of experience were found to have higher site supervisor self-efficacy and professional identity scores than their counterparts with no (0 Hours) or little (1--5 Hours) training.


Advisors: Jane E. Rheineck; Toni R. Tollerud.||Committee members: Charlie Myers; David Walker.||Includes bibliographical references.


ix, 199 pages




Northern Illinois University

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