Caicina Jones

Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Demaray, Michelle K.

Degree Name

M.A. (Master of Arts)

Legacy Department

Department of Psychology


Psychology; Gender studies; LGBTQ studies; Victims of bullying--Mental health--Research; Sex role--Psychology; Gender identity--Psychological aspects--Research; Sexual minorities--Mental health--Research


Deviation from established gender roles may contribute to the experiences of peer victimization by LGBTQ and heterosexual students. However this assertion has only primarily been explored among adult LGBTQ individuals. Gender nonconforming behavior may contribute to perceptions of LGBTQ status and peer victimization as a result of those perceptions. Prior research indicates that there associations among low gender typicality, peer victimization due to bullying, and negative psychosocial outcomes. It is important to further study these associations among youth populations. The current study examined the relations among Gender Typicality, internalizing distress (Anxiety and Depression), and Victimization (homophobic and general peer). The sample consisted of 234 middle school students age 10-14. It was expected that Gender Typicality would significantly predict internalized distress and victimization. Results partially supported predictions. There was evidence for the mediational role of Peer Victimization in the association between Gender Typicality and Depression for girls but not boys. The association between Gender Typicality and Anxiety was mediated by Peer Victimization for both boys and girls. Evidence for the mediational role of Homophobic Victimization was not found for either gender. Results were likely impacted by a number of factors such as measurement validity, social desirability, and sample characteristics. Despite limitations, it is clear that further study of Gender Typicality and Peer/Homophobic Victimization is warranted.


Advisors: Michelle K. Demaray.||Committee members: Lisa Finkelstein; Christine Malecki.


105 pages




Northern Illinois University

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