Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Vahabzadeh, Sahar

Degree Name

M.S. (Master of Science)

Legacy Department

Department of Mechanical Engineering


Mechanical engineering; Biomedical engineering; Materials science


Arthritis, osteoporosis, and other bone diseases and defects are common medical issues worldwide. By utilizing ceramic biomaterials as bone substitutes to treat these diseases, bone regeneration can be promoted and toxicity from the substitute material can be limited. Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics have become popular as bone substitutes due to their biocompatibility and similarity in composition to natural bone. The purpose of this research was to investigate the physical properties and biological responses of CaP-based bone substitutes, doped with metal ions. Some metal ions are present in natural bone in small amounts, and recent studies show they affect the biological responses of CaPs significantly. Dopants such as magnesium (Mg), strontium (Sr), silicon (Si) and iron (Fe) alter the phase composition, mechanical properties, osteogenesis and angiogenesis properties of CaPs, depending on their concentration and method of addition. In the present study, the effects of cobalt (Co) and copper (Cu) on the physical and biological properties of two main CaP materials, brushite cement (BrC) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), have been investigated. Different concentrations of dopants in forms of oxide and/or chloride were selected and their effect on phase composition, sintering behavior, density, setting time, compressive strength and in vitro interaction with osteosarcoma and osteoblast cells was studied. Different techniques of sample preparation, challenges during cement preparation and compact sample pressing, sintering, and methods of dopant addition have been discussed. The presence of Cu in tricalcium phosphate was found to increase thermal stability of the material and decrease the impact of sintering temperature on porosity. In addition, Cu caused a reduction in expression of inflammatory gene markers by human osteoblast cells, and an increased expression at early time points due of osteoinductive markers. The addition of Cu and Co to brushite cement caused an increase in thermal stability of the material, and the addition of Cu caused significant increase in setting time. Small dopant amounts of Co caused decrease in setting time, but higher amounts caused an increase. In addition, Cu dopant in small amounts resulted in an increase of compressive strength. Both Cu and Co led to a decrease in expression of inflammatory gene markers by osteoblast and osteosarcoma cells respectively, and Cu also caused an increase in osteoinductive marker expression. Thus, these results indicate that Cu and Co have a positive impact on the physical, mechanical and biological properties of calcium phosphate biomaterials.


Advisors: Sahar Vahabzadeh.||Committee members: Sherine F. Elsawa; Federico Sciammarella.||Includes illustrations.||Includes bibliographical references.


104 pages




Northern Illinois University

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