Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Reinemann, Martin W.||Caldwell, Loren T.

Degree Name

M.S. (Master of Science)

Legacy Department

Department of Earth Science


Cartography--Illinois--De Kalb; Commercial geography


The desire and ability of nan to represent the aurfaoe of the earth, or parts of it, on a flat surface dates far back in history. As time passed and man made advances in mechanical, agricultural, and cultural knowledge, he simultaneously broadened his geographical frontier. His wandering over unknown territory, over uncharted terrain, made it more imperative than ever to devise new and better techniques of representing his environment in map form. He also realized that he would be faced with several problems which would have to be solved in order for him to make his representations accurate and undistorted. One of these problems was to visually and accurately project a three dimensional object on a flat surface. Another problem was to project various three dimensional shapes on a flat surface without distorting their size and shape. Various cartographers have responded to these problems by inventing special types of map devices for more accurate projection. Various sinusoidial, homolographic, and cylindrical projections are all efforts to overcome problems of size and shape. Contour or isorithmic maps are attempts to project three dimensional objects on a flat surface. Various other devices such as graphs and cartograms are used to project quantity by the use of dots, blocks, and various sized spheres, each of which have a certain numerical value.


Includes bibliographical references.||Includes maps.


69 pages




Northern Illinois University

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