Ballantine, David Stephen
M.S. (Master of Science)
Department of Chemistry
Phenols; Aromatic compounds; Chromatographic analysis; Gas chromatography
A system combining counter-current membrane extraction and gas chromatographic analysis was evaluated and tested using phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol as a test sample mixture. The phenols were successfully extracted from water and determined by gas chromatography in the part-per-million range. Several system parameters were varied to determine the effect of each on efficiency and speed of extraction, including membrane material, extracting solvent, and pH. Three different kinds of membranes were evaluated: a Nafion* 417, perfluorinated membrane; a polyethylene film; and a dialysis membrane. Chloroform and toluene served as organic solvents. The observed partition coefficients were compared with the theoretical values. To increase the reproducibility of the analysis, an internal standard procedure was employed. Both extraction rate and partition coefficient improved at lower pH. Additional extraction experiments were performed from a potassium chloride solution having an ionic strength equivalent to pH=3.0 solution. Results were not significantly different than results of extraction from simple aqueous solution. The system has potential for extraction/analysis and for simplified, dedicated systems for on-line analysis.
Chen, Hsi, "Membrane-gas chromatographic system for counter-current extraction and determination of phenols in aqueous samples" (1993). Graduate Research Theses & Dissertations. 3940.
ix, 83 pages
Northern Illinois University
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