Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Marshall, Hannah

Degree Name

M.A. (Master of Arts)

Legacy Department

Department of Sociology


Morale; Whole and parts (Psychology)


Structure, defined as guidelines for behavior, is essential for the effective actions of individuals since it enhances feelings of cohesion and satisfaction. The lack of structure, such as ambiguous role expectations, is often associated with feelings of anxiety. An hypothesis which oriented the study reported here is: Generally, individuals in a relatively highly structured situation will have a significantly higher morale than those in a relatively unstructured situation. Morale of individuals reflects the extent of their satisfaction or sense of well-being with their life situations. It was assumed that both structure and morale could be measured quantitatively. The objective of this research was to test the relationship between morale of graduate students and the level of structure in their departments. To analyze this relationship the departments were defined as high or low in structure based on five criteria. The graduate students in these departments were then asked to respond to a morale questionnaire Analysis of the data received from thirty-four graduate students illustrated that there was no significant relationship between morale of students and the level of structure in their departments. Since there was no significant relationship found between morale of graduate students and the level of structure in their departments, the hypothesis that students in highly structured departments would have high morale and those in departments having low structure would have low morale was not confirmed.


Includes bibliographical references.


57 pages




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