Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Bridgett, David J.

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Psychology


Developmental psychology


Existing work has highlighted associations between children's inhibited temperament, a temperament style characterized by withdrawal or inhibition in response to novelty, and overcontrolling parenting, a parenting style characterized by parental use of excessive caution, protection, and/or restriction in the absence of cause or reason. Both inhibited temperament and overprotective parenting have been linked to increased risk for child anxiety. This study examined the bidirectional relations between these two anxiety risk factors during the early toddlerhood period (i.e., 18, 24, and 30 months of age). In existing literature, concurrent positive associations have been noted and some prospective links have also been reported in preschool and school-aged children. Few studies have examined prospective relations while controlling for earlier levels of parenting and/or temperament and no studies were identified that have assessed inhibited temperament and overcontrolling parenting at multiple time points during toddlerhood. To address these perceived gaps in the literature, a fully cross-lagged panel design was specified, allowing for examination of the direction and strength of associations between overcontrolling parenting and child inhibition across the early childhood period. Contrary to expectations, overcontrolling parenting did not predict subsequent inhibited temperament, nor did inhibited temperament predict subsequent overcontrolling parenting. Concurrent associations between temperament and parenting were also not observed. Implications for future work are discussed.


Advisors: David J. Bridgett.||Committee members: Julia Ogg; Laura Pittman; Elizabeth Shelleby.||Includes illustrations.||Includes bibliographical references.


105 pages




Northern Illinois University

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