Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Smith, Maria Ostendorf

Degree Name

M.A. (Master of Arts)

Legacy Department

Department of Anthropology


Indians of North America--Illinois--Anthropometry; Woodland culture--Illinois; Mounds--Illinois; Indians of North America--Illinois--Health and hygiene; Paleopathology--Illinois; Kuhlman Site (Ill.)


This research project focuses on the pattern of nonspecific infectious disease and iron deficiency anemia on the individuals at Schroeder (n=89) and Kuhlman Mounds (n=92). Both sites are located in west central Illinois and are dated to the Late Woodland Period, a time of transition from hunting and collecting subsistence strategies to intensive maize agriculture. The Kuhlman Mounds site (AD 600-800) was occupied earlier in time than the Schroeder Mounds site (AD 800-1000). The subadults at both sites exhibited active infection, porotic hyperostosis, and cribra orbitalia, which peaked at the 1-2.9 years old age cohort. Adults were characterized by remodeling and/or healed lesions. The individuals at the later Schroeder Mounds site exhibited higher frequencies of nonspecific infection, porotic hyperostosis, and cribra orbitalia as well as more extensive lesion involvement than Kuhlman. Frequencies of nonspecific infection in conjunction with anemia indicate the presence of various stressors in the environment. Extensive archaeobotanical analyses of Illinois show that abundant resources were available during the Late Woodland Period. However, the Late Woodland was a time of increasing population density and social complexity, which may have limited access to resources for particular groups or individuals. This may help explain the more common and severe illness and anemia patterns of the later Schroeder site.


Includes bibliographical references (pages [132]-142).


xii, 157 pages




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