Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Tollerud, Toni R.||Wickman, Scott A.

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Counseling, Adult and Higher Education


Educational counseling; Education


This qualitative study explored the experiences of school counselors who have received clinical supervision post master's degree. First, the study focused on the perceptions of how clinical supervision influenced work with students and families. Second, the study explored the perceptions of how clinical supervision impacted professional identity and their professional relationships with other school counselors. There is a gap in clinical supervision expectations between school counselors and mental health counselors. Even though the training of all counselors is often very similar in graduate school, the professional paths of school counselors diverge from mental health counselors due to the prevalence of clinical supervision being the standard professional development expectation for mental health counselors, but rarely is clinical supervision an expectation for school counselors. Unfortunately, as mental health needs of students have escalated, a lack of clinical supervision for school counselors has, in some cases, resulted in being overwhelmed by student mental health needs, crisis response, and working with school building stakeholders to identify and close gaps in student achievement. The lack of clinical supervision has also led to burnout, role confusion, and a withering of counseling skills resulting in student needs not being met. This study used a qualitative method to learn about the perceived benefits school counselors receive from clinical supervision. The study discovered how clinically supervised school counselors employ advanced counseling, decision-making, and relationship skills in several aspects of their work. The study also learned how clinical supervision impacts professional identity and relationships with other school counselors.


Advisors: Toni R. Tollerud; Scott A. Wickman.||Committee members: Hidetada Shimizu.||Includes bibliographical references.


229 pages




Northern Illinois University

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