Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Fisher, Teresa A.

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Counseling, Adult and Higher Education


Higher education; Mental health; Educational psychology; Minorities--Study and teaching


Critical race theory has often been described as a lens in which to see and understand how racism can impact or affect people of color. This lens makes room for a deeper consideration of ones lived experiences as a direct result of racial bias. Sometime in the mid 1970's, Derrick Bell, Alan Freeman, and Richard Delgado acted in response to the lack of acceptable forward movement with regards to civil rights during the 1960's. Critical race theory was viewed as a direct call to action. This theory takes on a multidisciplinary approach, has the capacity to provide insight between relationships and power, and considers the impact that power may unintentionally have on relationships. A sound theoretical paradigm is a vital component in understanding racial bias between clinical counseling supervisors and supervisees of color. This proposal outlines a qualitative research study that aspires to process how supervisees of color experience a personal understanding and resolution of racial bias within their supervisory relationships. In this study the researcher sought to understand if the existence of racial bias prevented supervisees of color from fulfilling their maximum clinical potential about their training and the findings in this study revealed it did not. Supervisees in this study were identified as people of color. Participants included 10 supervisees of color who are clinically licensed and currently enrolled in doctoral programs across the United States. These supervises of color (SOC) obtained a minimum of a master's degree, hold appropriate licensure for supervision responsibilities, and thereby have clinical and supervisory experience. SOC's also had at least one impactful racial bias experience within clinical supervision. Personal and professional growth was viewed as inextricable in this study and was explored as well. The researcher collected data via interviews and demographic surveys. Data analysis was carried out by an exploration of the identifying features of participants' experience and key assertions via themes and categories as it related to the way something was said or done.


Advisors: Teresa A. Fisher.||Committee members: Lee Covington Rush; Laverne Gyant.||Includes bibliographical references.


163 pages




Northern Illinois University

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