Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Demaray, Michelle K.

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Psychology


Self-efficacy; Academic achievement; Middle school students


The purpose of this project was to explore the mediating effects of social and academic self-efficacy on the relations between bullying role behaviors and academic achievement. Research has primarily focused on the bully and the victim in bullying situations, which neglects to examine the experiences of those who witness or are involved in the aggressive act, including assisting bullies, defending victims, and ignoring others. As a result, research has overlooked how other bullying roles relate to academic performance. However, research has explored how various bullying role behaviors relate to self-efficacy. Additionally, self-efficacy has been associated with academic performance, such as GPA. The purpose of the current study was to add to the existing bullying role behavior literature by investigating the relations among bully participant role behaviors, self-efficacy beliefs, and GPA. This project investigated the mediational effect of social and academic self-efficacy on the relation between bullying role behaviors and GPA. The mediation models were evaluated separately by gender to differentiate this effect in males and females. In other words, does social and academic self-efficacy explain the association between bully participant role behaviors and GPA in males and females? Data were collected on 7th-grade students (N= 348). In general, most models exploring the association between bullying role behaviors and GPA through social and academic self-efficacy had consistent results in the male and female samples; however, there were some significant results that were supported in females only (victimization experience). When exploring the mediation models, individuals who engaged in bullying, assisting, outsider behaviors or experience victimization had negative associations with social self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy; there were no significant positive associations between defending behavior and self-efficacy. Across all models, social and academic self-efficacy were significantly and positively associated. Additionally, all or most of the models found significant positive associations between academic self-efficacy and GPA and significant and negative associations between social self-efficacy and GPA. The results of the mediational model varied for each bullying role behavior to suggest that an individual's behavior when bullying occurs influences their self-perceptions and GPA differentially.


Advisors: Michelle K. Demaray.||Committee members: Amanda M. Durik; Christine K. Malecki; Nina Mounts; Julia Ogg; Kelly H. Summers.||Includes bibliographical references.||Includes illustrations.


viii, 180 pages




Northern Illinois University

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