Maha H. Zayed

Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Milner, Joel S.||Thomsen, Cynthia

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Psychology


Rape--Psychological aspects


Using a modified version of the Sexual Experiences Survey, this study examined whether the consequences of adult sexual assault (ASA) vary depending on the type of ASA (contact, attempted intercourse, intercourse) and the tactics used by the perpetrator (arguments and pressure, authority, alcohol and/or drugs, threat or use of physical force). The effects of history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and history of trauma were controlled. College women ( N = 654) completed the modified SES and self-report measures of depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, rape-related fear, self-blame, self-efficacy, and shame/guilt. Intercourse was associated with the highest symptom levels of any form of ASA, and attempted intercourse was associated with the lowest symptom levels. Effects of tactics were generally stronger than the effects of ASA type, and tactic effects differed across outcome variables. Attempted intercourse, compared to intercourse, was associated with greater self-efficacy for ASA situations. ASA involving force was associated with the lowest levels of anxiety, depression, and self-blame but the second-highest levels of PTSD after controlling for history of CSA and history of trauma. There were no differences among ASA tactics for fear or shame/guilt. Implications for theory, research, and treatment are discussed.


Includes bibliographical references (pages [220]-227).


xiii, 275 pages




Northern Illinois University

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