Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Bridgett, David J.

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Psychology


Developmental psychology


Increased attention has been given to contextual (e.g., parenting) and individual factors (e.g., infant temperament) that may relate to compliance and defiance levels in the literature given their links to important outcomes (e.g., behavioral problems). Few studies, however, have specifically examined infant frustration and maternal control tactics used during a compliance task. Further, no studies have considered possible interaction effects between these factors. Thus, the present study aimed to examine the direct effect of infant frustration and several maternal control tactics used during a cleanup task (gentle guidance, control, and negative control) on subsequent toddler committed compliance and defiance. The present study also sought to test for the presence of interactive effects (infant frustration x maternal gentle guidance, infant frustration x maternal control, and infant frustration x maternal negative control) in relation to toddler committed compliance and defiance. Specifically, differential susceptibility interactions were anticipated. A composite of infant frustration was created via observational measurements of frustration when infants were 10 and 12 months of age, and maternal control tactics (gentle guidance, control, and negative control) and child committed compliance and defiance were examined behaviorally during the context of a cleanup task when toddlers were 18 months of age. Results from regression analyses suggested significant positive relationships between gentle guidance and committed compliance, between control and defiance, and between negative control and defiance and negative relationships between gentle guidance and defiance, between control and committed compliance, and between negative control and committed compliance. The association between infant frustration and child compliance and defiance was not significant. Further, no significant interactive effects were observed in the present study. Interpretation, extra considerations, and limitations are discussed.


Advisors: David J. Bridgett.||Committee members: David Bridgett; Julie Ogg; Laura Pittman; Elizabeth Shelleby; Scott Sibley; Karen White.||Includes bibliographical references.||Includes illustrations.


iv, 105 pages




Northern Illinois University

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