Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Thurmaier, Kurt M., 1957-

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Department of Political Science


Public administration; Political science


This study examines the role of the middle class in influencing local government spending and political turnovers in a decentralized Indonesia. It analyzes the changes in pattern of education and infrastructure spending in the pre and post decentralization era, specifically the changes due to the implementation of direct mayoral election in municipalities that began in 2005. The study finds that in the post direct election era, education and infrastructure spending are higher. For education spending, the increase is amplified by the presence of the middle class. As the size of the middle class in a city increases, the effect of decentralization on education spending becomes stronger. On the other hand, the effect of decentralization on infrastructure spending is attenuated by the size of the middle class in cities. In addition, the middle class amplifies the effect of local government performance on political turnover of mayors. The effect of elementary school enrollment rate on mayors' votes is stronger as the size of the middle class in a city increases. This study finds no conclusive results on the effect of the middle class on political turnovers of city council members. Last, the study qualitatively explores the role of nongovernmental organizations in influencing local government decision-making and building the capacity of the citizens in ensuring local government accountability.


Advisors: Kurt Thurmaier.||Committee members: Gregory Porumbescu; Eric Zeemering.||Includes bibliographical references.||Includes illustrations.


vii, 165 pages




Northern Illinois University

Rights Statement

In Copyright

Rights Statement 2

NIU theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from Huskie Commons for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without the written permission of the authors.

Media Type