Oksoon Lee

Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Wickman, Scott A.

Degree Name

Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy)

Legacy Department

Counseling, Adult and Higher Education


Higher education; Counseling Psychology; Clinical psychology


Counseling practicums are vital in counselor education and a significant transitional period from a student to a counselor. Practicum provides for the application of theory and counseling skills that students have learned during the coursework. It is also memorable moment to meet a real client for the first time. Practicum supervisees have to prove their counseling skills and capacities as professional counselors. However, in this stage, practicum supervisees experience a high level of anxiety, self-doubt and low self-efficacy that keeps them from being fully present with and therapeutically responding to their clients. Creative/expressive arts have been utilized in counselor education as well as counseling to reduce those barriers and optimize supervisees' professional growth by providing creative non-verbal methods to build safe and trusting supervisory relationships, increase self-awareness, and reduce fear and resistance. This qualitative research explored how counselor educators have experienced and perceived using creative/expressive arts in practicum supervision. Seven participants were recruited through reputational and snowball sampling. Six participants held a Ph.D. in counselor education or closely related fields. All participants had counseling related licensures and practicum teaching and/or practicum supervision experience using creative/expressive arts for at least three years as well as publications and/or presentations about creative/expressive art supervision. The participants engaged in 60-90 minute interviews and reviewed all transcripts and findings to verify the accuracy and trustworthiness. N-Vivo 11 was used to analyze the data. Findings revealed four categories of themes: creative intervention, the decision-making process, the supervisory process, and professional growth. The study offers insights into why and how counselor educators and clinical supervisors utilized creative/expressive arts to optimize their practicum supervisees' professional growth. Implications for counselor educators, clinical supervisors, counselors-in-training, and counseling programs are offered. Future directions for research are also discussed.


Advisors: Scott A. Wickman.||Committee members: Cythia Campbell; Toni R. Tollerud.||Includes bibliographical references.


190 pages




Northern Illinois University

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