Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Ball, Thomas E.

Degree Name

M.S. Ed. (Master of Education)

Legacy Department

Department of Physical Education


Creatine kinase; Football players--Illinois--Physiology; College athletes--Illinois--Physiology; Physical fitness for men--Illinois


The objectives of this study were twofold: to determine the blood serum creatine kinase (CK) levels in football players undergoing two-a-day football practices and to determine if a relationship existed between several measures of fitness and CK levels. Recruitment was used as the sampling method to ensure the representation of as many positions as possible. Twelve male Division I football players completed the research protocol (6 black and 6 white, mean age 20.9 years, mean height 185.4 +/- 7.3 centimeters, mean weight 105.9 +/- 22.9 kilograms) in August of 1997. Creatine kinase levels were measured immediately prior to beginning practices (CKM1) and on the mornings of the 4th (CKM2), 7th (CKM3) and 10th (CKM4) days of practices. Fitness tests including skinfold thickness (% body fat), body mass index, anaerobic capacity, anaerobic peak power, 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press lifts and 1RM squat lifts were done to determine whether the athletes in better physical condition had lower rises in CK. Statistical significance was found between the 4 CK groups (F = 8.67, p = 0.0002). CKM1 and CKM2 and CKM1 and CKM3 were statistically different from one another. There were no statistically significant differences between CKM1 and CKM4, between CKM2 and CKM3 or between CKM3 and CKM4. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the gain in CK and the fitness variables. The correlations are as follows: anaerobic capacity (r = -0.54, p = 0.071), anaerobic peak power (r = -0.64, p = 0.025), body mass index (r = -0.51, p = 0.090), percent body fat (r = -0.52, p = 0.082), bench press (r = -0.18, p = 0.574) and squat lift (r = -0.16, p = 0.624). All participants showed laboratory evidence of exertional rhabdomyolysis without showing physical evidence. Participants who had higher anaerobic peak power and anaerobic capacity scores had lower increases in CK. Higher levels of body fat seemed to have a protective effect on muscle cell damage. Increasing anaerobic peak power and anaerobic capacity may be a method of helping to reduce the risk of exertional rhabdomyolysis.


Includes bibliographical references (pages [41]-42)


48 pages




Northern Illinois University

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