Publication Date


Document Type


First Advisor

Kreps, Gary L.

Degree Name

M.A. (Master of Arts)

Legacy Department

Department of Communication Studies


Public speaking--Psychological aspects; Visualization


Previous studies have shown the efficacy of in-class, instructor-led visualization (VIS) as a treatment method for communication apprehension. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether out-of-class, self-administered VIS could be as effective in the reduction of communication apprehension as in-class, instructor-led VIS. In order to test the effectiveness of the two methods, an experiment was designed which utilized three treatment groups. Treatment group I received in-class, instructor-led VIS; treatment group II was instructed on the VIS technique, and engaged in out-of-class, self-administered VIS; and treatment group III was a control group, receiving no VIS treatments. The 25-item Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PRCA) was used to measure the students' levels of apprehension. It was administered three times during the semester. A pre-test was administered during the second week of classes, an immediate post-test immediately following the first speech, and a delayed post-test immediately following the final speech of the semester. A total of 900 students from 36 sections of Northern Illinois University’s COMS 100 course participated in the study. However, due to a high rate of subject mortality, the data from only 240 students were useable. The results indicated that there was no significant difference between the three treatment groups. CA was reduced comparably in all three groups. Post hoc analysis showed that in-class VIS was slightly more effective than out-of-class VIS in reducing the apprehension of highly apprehensive students. However, there was no significant difference between the amount of CA reduction reported by the control group and the two VIS groups.


Bibliography: pages [82]-90.


vii, 116 pages




Northern Illinois University

Rights Statement

In Copyright

Rights Statement 2

NIU theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed from Huskie Commons for any purpose, but reproduction or distribution in any format is prohibited without the written permission of the authors.

Media Type